This unit considers the place of remembering, explicit and implicit, in humanitarian action. It uses different moments in the twentieth century to consider how the past is summoned, channeled, or repressed, and why. The course explores how relief and conflict experiences have shaped – and are shaped by – humanitarian organisations and the wider public sphere, from dominant discourses to minority experiences. It thereby raises issues such as voice, justice, organizational identity and political engagement. The unit encourages reflection on the techniques and impact of appeals to the past in debates both public and private.